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Kadaram, though the carnatic name is not much familiar, the Hindusthani equivalent “Chandrakouns” is a very popular name; still the number of compositions in carnatic music is only very few. And those which are available also, seldom find a concert platform,

Before finding the structure of this raga, we have to begin with an oudava raga, Hindolam (called Malkouns in Hindustani), janya of mela (20) ragam NaTabhairavi; which has a configuration, SG2M1D1N2S // SN2D1M1G2S. Most of us know that when the Suddha Dhaivatham of Hindolam is changed to Chathusruthi Dhaivatham D2, it becomes Varamu (Suddha Hindolam). Some of the Hindolam raga compositions like the Thyagaraja krithi, ‘Manasuloni marmamunu’ are sung in Varamu also. Similarly, if the Sadharana Gandharam (G2) is replaced by Anthara Gandharam (G3), it becomes Ragam Surya (Sallapam). Now, if the Kaishiki Nishadam (N2) of Hindolam is changed to Kakali Nishadam (N3), it becomes Kadaram (Chandrakouns). We shall see the comparison for a better understanding:

Hindolam : S G2 M1 D1 N2 S // S N2 D1 M1 G2 S (Malkouns)

Varamu : S G2 M1 D2 N2 S // S N2 D2 M1 G2 S (Suddha Hindolam, Hindola gamini)

Sallapam : S G3 M1 D1 N2 S // S N2 D1 M1 G3 S

Kadaram : S G2 M1 D1 N3 S // S N3 D1 M1 G2 S (Chandrakouns) (This specification is also confirmed by Ragapravaham, under the same mela).

So, it gives a light flavor of Hindolam, since the poorvangam is same. But, unlike Hindolam, which is too popular in carnatic and light music, Kadaram finds application more in light music only. In Hindustani music, there are many bhajans and other songs in this raga. As Chandrakouns, Kadaram also evokes Bhakthi and shringara rasas; it is better to be sung in late night like Behag or Bhageshri. The Kakali Nishadam in Kadaram not only differentiates it from Hindolam (Malkauns), but also produces a lasting unique impression on the audience. Also N3 is a prominent note. The beauty of it is discovered in slow and peaceful renditions of the raga rather than in a fast pace, also better received in the upper part of the middle octave or upper octave as Chandrakouns. In Chandrakouns, the Nishadam produces an atmosphere full of anxiety and tension; it belongs to the Kafi Thaat.


Kandena govindana - Purandaradasar

Nalai varum enru - Madurai G.S.Mani

Varamarulum venkatesa – Padma Veeraraghavan

Dharmave jayavemba - Purandaradasar

Narahari vesha – Rukmini Ramani

Dehi mudam - Subramanya bharathi

Pandharitsa bhootha - Sant Tukkaram

Now, We shall listen to a very melodious rendition of the Purandaradasar krithi, “Kandena Govindana” by Sangeetha kalanidhi Sri. Sanjay Subramanian.

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(Please check the name of the Raga and search using the search button) Ahir bhairaV Amrita vahini Andhali Andolika Ardra Desi Bangala Bhairavam Bhushavali Bindumalini Chandrajyothi Chhaya goula Chhaya


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