RARE RAGA SERIES: REVAGUPTI – JANYA OF MELA (15) RAGAM MAYAMALAVAGOULA

Revagupti is a morning raga, janya of mela (15) ragam Mayamalavagoula. The three ragas, Bhupalam, Revagupti and Bowli having similarities in structure, along with the parent ragam are considered to be auspicious and sung in the early morning hours.

Bhupalam : S R1 G2 P D1 S // S D1 P G2 R1 S

Revagupti : S R1 G3 P D1 S // S D1 P G3 R1 S

Bowli : S R1 G3 P D1 S // S N3 D1 P G3 R1 S

We can see the difference between Bhupalam and Revagupti is only the change in gandharam; while Bowli takes Kakali Nishadam in addition in the avarohanam. Hence much care is required in distinguishing among these.

Another raga, ‘Kalyana Kesari’ also has the same notes of Revagupti; but not heard much about it. The raga ‘Mechabowli’ has the Revagupti notes in arohanam and Mayamalavagoula notes in the avarohanam. In Hindustani, ragas Bibhas and Rewa have similar scales as Revagupti. It is seen that some compositions in Bhupalam are being sung in Revagupti only. The best examples are the Swathithirunal krithis.

Ragapravaham by D.Pattammal places it under same mela (15); but assigns both the Revagupti and Bowli scales to it, as:

S R G P D S - S D P G R S

S R G P D S - S N D P G R S

However, Sangeetha Sampradaya Pradarshini by Subbarama Dikshithar shows the normal specification; see the lakshana sloka:

“audavo revaguptistu rigraho ma ni varjitah |

dinasya carame yame geyo gayaka sattamaih ||”

(an audava raga, without Madhyamam and Nishadam; can be sung in the fourth quarter of the night).

Compositions:

Graha balam emi - Thyagaraja

Saravana bhava guru guham - Dikshithar

Sada vinata sadare - Dikshithar

Purushothamuda veevu- Annamacharya

Ekkadi Manusha janmam - Pedda Tirumalacharya (usually sung in Bowli)

Gopalaka pahimam - Swathithirunal (Bhupalam, sung in Revagupthi)

sAmajEndra bhItiharaNa - Swathithirunal ( ,, )

Medini jeevula - Annamacharya

Neeveraganidi ledu - Annamacharya

Bhuttia katto - Annamacharya

Samarabam balaraviteja(lg) – Venkatamakhi

None of the krithis as above are very popular, except the Swathithirunal krithi in Bhupalam, sung in Revagupti (Gopalaka Pahimam)

We shall consider the only Thyagaraja krithi, ‘grahabalam emi’ in the raga; The poet states that those who worship Lord need not worry about the malefic effects of the Nava grahas. He says:

“Of what significance the potency of the planets?

Only the potency of grace of Lord SrI rAma is the real potency.

Of what significance the potency of the nine planets to those who meditate on the radiant, beautiful form of the Lord SrI rAma?

Of what significance the potency of the planets to this tyAgarAja, as also to those eminent rasikas (of music) who worship Lord hari who quells - the afflictions caused by the planets,

the five great sins, and the obstinate (six-fold) enemies - desire etc (kAma, krOdha, lObha, mOha, mada, mAtsarya)?

Only the potency of grace of Lord SrI rAma is the real potency.


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